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I thought I would pass along some tips for those of you who will be building a house here in Honduras or elsewhere in the tropics. Some of the tips are from our architect, some we thought of when we were designing our home, and a few we wish we had thought of. These are some basic tips to keep your home cool and dry − the major considerations in a tropical area. Although most of the tips are just common sense, those of us coming from colder, drier climates might not always realize their importance. Plan your house to take full advantage of the prevailing breeze. Designing the house so that your bedrooms receive the breeze is a good idea and may save you from using air conditioning many nights. Plan your design it so that you have good cross ventilation. A more open floor plan allows the air to circulate better throughout the house than closed off rooms. Heat rises, so high ceilings can make a big difference. Here in Honduras, it doesn't cost all that much more to make your ceilings 10 feet high because the main difference is adding a few extra rows of blocks. Ceiling fans in most or all of your rooms will help you to feel much cooler, especially in the kitchen. If you have high ceilings, you'll need extensions to drop the fan down so that the blades are at about 8 feet for the best effect. Ceiling fans don't use much more electricity than a light bulb. Good quality ceiling fans are available in the U.S. for around $100 and sometimes much less than that − not that much more than a nice light fixture. Design your windows as tall and wide as you can afford. This helps to let out the hot air as well as to let in the breeze. This will also reduce your need for using lights during the day. Larger windows will add to the expense, especially if you plan to put iron bars over them, but weigh the expense against the extra comfort over time. Plan at least one covered outdoor terraza (facing the direction of the prevailing breeze if possible) and make it bigger than you think you need. Consider a ceiling fan for your terraza, too. Some days are so hot that you will just want to live outside in the shade. One or two electrical outlets in a protected area of the terraza (terrace) are handy to have for a radio or floor fan. A wide roof overhang helps to block the sun from the windows and help to prevent the rain from entering. To try plan for a few windows that can remain open during rainstorms, such as facing your covered terraza, to keep the house cooler. The weather can be very hot when it rains, too, and having to close all your windows in that heat can be miserable. Leave as much green space around your house as possible. Concrete absorbs the heat of the sun and retains it for a long time. If you have space for trees on the west side of your house, they will serve to keep your house cooler in the late afternoon, the hottest part of the day. Plan your construction to allow for runoff from tropical storms. It's a good idea to elevate your home one to two feet or even more above ground level. Make sure that your landscaping slopes away from your home, not towards it and ensure that the water has some place to go! The concrete muros (fences) that are so popular can act like a soup bowl during a tropical storm if proper drainage isn't provided. Be considerate of your neighbors and pedestrians − Don't let your roof or garden drain onto the public sidewalks or your neighbor's property! After I wrote this, I did a little research to make sure I wasn't giving any bad information. (Don't most people research before they write articles? Ha ha.) I found this excellent Queensland, Australia site that has a lot more information about building in tropical areas. (By the way, I found that my advice was pretty darn good!) The government of Australia takes energy and water conservation very seriously. Northern Queensland is at about the same latitude as the north coast of Honduras with a similar hot and humid tropical climate. The site mentioned above has numerous links to other energy and water conservation sites. One of the best ones is the Home Consumer Guide. When reading these pages, just keep in mind that Australia is in the southern hemisphere so where you read "north," you need to think "south" if you are north of the equator.
Cross Ventilation After shade, ventilation is the next most important factor when considering the design of an eco-house in the tropics. Place windows on as many walls as possible, so breezes can blow through from any direction. You can install inexpensive windows that have both sliding glass and screen panels, to maximize air flow when fully open, or to prevent bugs from entering using the screens during times when there are lots of bugs, such as at dusk, or right after the first rains. Houses should also include ceiling fans for additional cooling and air circulation. Fans not only cool, but they also keep a room dry, by helping to evaporate moisture, which reduces fungus and maintenance. We recommend a cheap white panasonic fan that can be purchased and repaired locally. In more temperate climates, houses can be more effectively cooled using good ventilation than using “thermal mass” techniques, that is, heavy walls that absorb heat and radiate it back out at night. That’s because at night, the temperature in the tropics doesn’t drop very much. Extended shade roofs Probably the most important green-building consideration is to create lots of shade by building extended roof eaves. A wrap-around porch on the west, south, and east sides of the house will block the sun from heating up the house. These extended roofs create large outdoor living spaces underneath, which are ideal for tropical living, since you will probably spend a lot of your time outside anyway. Covered outdoor spaces are also cheaper to build, so it’s a great investment to add extra space for less money. Every house should have a covered deck space large enough to hold at least a dinner table and a couple of hammocks. If it’s designed properly, you will not need air conditioning in your house because it wont heat up much. If you look through a list of green building techniques or LEED certification requirements, you’ll see how few of them apply in the beach areas of Costa Rica. There are many reasons for this, but it’s primarily due to the fact that construction techniques are quite different. Building green doesn’t just mean solar power and windmills on the roof – it also is about low maintenance, and using local know-how for construction and repairs, the idea being to keep your money in your community, rather than hiring outside contractors. Also, the climate here is doubly harsh in that it’s tropical and rainy half the year and desert-dry the other half. Your house has to withstand both seasons. Looking online, you will find very little information out there about how to “build green” in the “dry tropical forest” of the pacific coast of Costa Rica, where much of the construction is going on now. We are trailblazing the way, helping to provide information for others to follow. Please enjoy this webpage – we hope it will help you with your house, and we welcome your comments and suggestions, so we can continually update and improve this information. Green building (also known as green construction or sustainable building) refers to a structure and using process that is environmentally responsible and resource-efficient throughout a building's life-cycle: from siting to design, construction, operation, maintenance, renovation, and demolition. This requires close cooperation of the design team, the architects, the engineers, and the client at all project stages.The Green Building practice expands and complements the classical building design concerns of economy, utility, durability, and comfort. Although new technologies are constantly being developed to complement current practices in creating greener structures, the common objective is that green buildings are designed to reduce the overall impact of the built environment on human health and the natural environment by: Efficiently using energy, water, and other resources Protecting occupant health and improving employee productivity Reducing waste, pollution and environmental degradation[2] A similar concept is natural building, which is usually on a smaller scale and tends to focus on the use of natural materials that are available locally. Other related topics include sustainable design and green architecture. Sustainability may be defined as meeting the needs of present generations without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. Green building does not specifically address the issue of the retrofitting existing homes. A 2009 report by the U.S. General Services Administration found 12 sustainably designed buildings cost less to operate and have excellent energy performance. In addition, occupants were more satisfied with the overall building than those in typical commercial buildings. Green building practices aim to reduce the environmental impact of buildings, and the very first rule is, do not build in sprawl (spreading in disordered fashion). No matter how much grass you put on your roof, no matter how many energy-efficient windows, etc., you use, if you build in sprawl, you've just defeated your purpose. Buildings account for a large amount of land. According to the National Resources Inventory, approximately 107 million acres (430,000 km2) of land in the United States are developed. The International Energy Agency released a publication that estimated that existing buildings are responsible for more than 40% of the world’s total primary energy consumption and for 24% of global carbon dioxide emissions. The concept of sustainable development can be traced to the energy (especially fossil oil) crisis and the environment pollution concern in the 1970s.[7] The green building movement in the U.S. originated from the need and desire for more energy efficient and environmentally friendly construction practices. There are a number of motives for building green, including environmental, economic, and social benefits. However, modern sustainability initiatives call for an integrated and synergistic design to both new construction and in the retrofitting of existing structures. Also known as sustainable design, this approach integrates the building life-cycle with each green practice employed with a design-purpose to create a synergy among the practices used. Green building brings together a vast array of practices, techniques, and skills to reduce and ultimately eliminate the impacts of buildings on the environment and human health. It often emphasizes taking advantage of renewable resources, e.g., using sunlight through passive solar, active solar, and photovoltaic techniques and using plants and trees through green roofs, rain gardens, and reduction of rainwater run-off. Many other techniques are used, such as using wood as a building material, or using packed gravel or permeable concrete instead of conventional concrete or asphalt to enhance replenishment of ground water. While the practices, or technologies, employed in green building are constantly evolving and may differ from region to region, fundamental principles persist from which the method is derived: Siting and Structure Design Efficiency, Energy Efficiency, Water Efficiency, Materials Efficiency, Indoor Environmental Quality Enhancement, Operations and Maintenance Optimization, and Waste and Toxics Reduction.[8][9] The essence of green building is an optimization of one or more of these principles. Also, with the proper synergistic design, individual green building technologies may work together to produce a greater cumulative effect. On the aesthetic side of green architecture or sustainable design is the philosophy of designing a building that is in harmony with the natural features and resources surrounding the site. There are several key steps in designing sustainable buildings: specify 'green' building materials from local sources, reduce loads, optimize systems, and generate on-site renewable energy. Green building (also known as green construction or sustainable building) refers to a structure and using process that is environmentally responsible and resource-efficient throughout a building's life-cycle: from siting to design, construction, operation, maintenance, renovation, and demolition. This requires close cooperation of the design team, the architects, the engineers, and the client at all project stages.The Green Building practice expands and complements the classical building design concerns of economy, utility, durability, and comfort. Although new technologies are constantly being developed to complement current practices in creating greener structures, the common objective is that green buildings are designed to reduce the overall impact of the built environment on human health and the natural environment by: Efficiently using energy, water, and other resources Protecting occupant health and improving employee productivity Reducing waste, pollution and environmental degradation[2] A similar concept is natural building, which is usually on a smaller scale and tends to focus on the use of natural materials that are available locally. Other related topics include sustainable design and green architecture. Sustainability may be defined as meeting the needs of present generations without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. Green building does not specifically address the issue of the retrofitting existing homes. A 2009 report by the U.S. General Services Administration found 12 sustainably designed buildings cost less to operate and have excellent energy performance. In addition, occupants were more satisfied with the overall building than those in typical commercial buildings. Green building practices aim to reduce the environmental impact of buildings, and the very first rule is, do not build in sprawl (spreading in disordered fashion). No matter how much grass you put on your roof, no matter how many energy-efficient windows, etc., you use, if you build in sprawl, you've just defeated your purpose. Buildings account for a large amount of land. According to the National Resources Inventory, approximately 107 million acres (430,000 km2) of land in the United States are developed. The International Energy Agency released a publication that estimated that existing buildings are responsible for more than 40% of the world’s total primary energy consumption and for 24% of global carbon dioxide emissions. The concept of sustainable development can be traced to the energy (especially fossil oil) crisis and the environment pollution concern in the 1970s.[7] The green building movement in the U.S. originated from the need and desire for more energy efficient and environmentally friendly construction practices. There are a number of motives for building green, including environmental, economic, and social benefits. However, modern sustainability initiatives call for an integrated and synergistic design to both new construction and in the retrofitting of existing structures. Also known as sustainable design, this approach integrates the building life-cycle with each green practice employed with a design-purpose to create a synergy among the practices used. Green building brings together a vast array of practices, techniques, and skills to reduce and ultimately eliminate the impacts of buildings on the environment and human health. It often emphasizes taking advantage of renewable resources, e.g., using sunlight through passive solar, active solar, and photovoltaic techniques and using plants and trees through green roofs, rain gardens, and reduction of rainwater run-off. Many other techniques are used, such as using wood as a building material, or using packed gravel or permeable concrete instead of conventional concrete or asphalt to enhance replenishment of ground water. While the practices, or technologies, employed in green building are constantly evolving and may differ from region to region, fundamental principles persist from which the method is derived: Siting and Structure Design Efficiency, Energy Efficiency, Water Efficiency, Materials Efficiency, Indoor Environmental Quality Enhancement, Operations and Maintenance Optimization, and Waste and Toxics Reduction.[8][9] The essence of green building is an optimization of one or more of these principles. Also, with the proper synergistic design, individual green building technologies may work together to produce a greater cumulative effect. On the aesthetic side of green architecture or sustainable design is the philosophy of designing a building that is in harmony with the natural features and resources surrounding the site. There are several key steps in designing sustainable buildings: specify 'green' building materials from local sources, reduce loads, optimize systems, and generate on-site renewable energy. Enjoy . . . . and you can thank me later!
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